Forms Of Communication
One way communication and two-way communication
Forms Of Communication
One way Communication and Two-way Communication One-way communication suggests the absence of feedback. The roles of the sender and the receiver are fixed; they are not interdependent as in two-way communication. Whatever feedback is available to the sender of the message does not come from the receiver of the message and is dependent upon the speaker's inferential abilities. The receiver has to guess and make out the meaning on his own because there is no scope for check back or interaction. Speaker reading out a pre-planned message to the audience, the newsreader on the television set, a radio talk, etc. are examples of the one-way communication. The receiver is free to discontinue reading, stop listening or switch off T.V./radio set. One-way communication takes less time and is appropriate in certain situations.
Two-way communication involves direct give and takes between sender and receiver, leading to greater mutual understanding. It is interactive, interpersonal and allows better sharing and understanding. But it takes more time. Examples of two-way communication are conversation, interview, telephone talk.
Verbal Communication And Non-Verbal Communication
Communication by using language (words), is called verbal communication. Communication by signs. action or objects is called non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is more powerful and hits the other person with a greater force than words. The non-verbal message makes a greater impact than the verbal one.
The non-verbal message often comes through unconsciously; the sender of the message cannot always control it. Therefore, self-awareness is very important in communication; otherwise, a person may not know what sort of confusing signals he is giving to the other person. A person protesting that he is not at all angry but showing visible signs of anger, or a person wanting you to believe that he is patiently and attentively listening to you while repeatedly looking at his watch - are examples of this sort of mismatch between verbal and non-verbal messages.
Oral Communication and Written Communication
Both these are forms of verbal communication and, compared to non-verbal forms, these are more direct and specific. Oral communication may be face-to-face, or by telephone, intercom system, etc.
Oral communication, when face-to-face, provides ample opportChapteries for clarification, feed-back, sorting out differences and promoting commitment.
Written communication is a widely used, powerful form of communication. All of us tend to take the written word seriously. Written communication can become a point of reference and the basis of evidence.
Formal Communication and Informal Communication
Formal communication is determined by such factor as hierarchy, authority, and accountability. And. It is therefore closely associated with organizations and such other formal social settings. Examples of formal organization communication are departmental meetings, conferences, circulars, company news bulletins, special interviews, and special-purpose publications. Formal communication ensures uniformity in the dissemination of information and can be very precise and purposeful. Informal communication, on the other hand, tends to be less uniform and at times, misleading. An example is a conversation at tea time. It is difficult to control or regulate informal communication. Informal communication is quite common in organizations. Grapevines, rumors, are examples of informal communication in organizations.
Intra-personal Communication and Interpersonal Communication
Inter-personal communication in what goes on within the mind. It may be confusing and vague, or it may be clear and logical. Active, careful thinking is good preparation for communication. The intra-personal factors of both the sender and the receiver play an important part in interpersonal communication.